Current Applications of Tissue Engineering in Biomedicine

Tissue Engineering (TE) is a scientific field mainly focused on the development of tissue and organ substitutes by controlling biological, biophysical and/or biomechanical parameters in the laboratory. The result corresponds, in most cases, to the elaboration of three-dimensional cellular constructs with properties more similar to natural tissues than classical monolayer cultures. These systems enable the in vitro study of human physiology and physiopathology more accurately, while providing a set of biomedical tools with potential applicability in toxicology, medical devices, tissue replacement, repair and regeneration. To succeed in these purposes, TE uses nature as an inspiration source for the generation of extracellular matrix analogues (scaffolds), either from natural or synthetic origin as well as bioreactors and bio-devices to mimic natural physiological conditions of particular tissues. These scaffolds embed cells in a threedimensional milieu that display signals critical for the determination of cellular fate, in terms of proliferation, differentiation and migration, among others. The aim of this review is to analyze the state of the art of TE and some of its application fields: bone, cartilage, heart, pancreas, vascular and cancer.

 

  • Tissue engineering for regeneration of damaged tissues
  • Cartilage tissue engineering
  • Cardiac tissue engineering
  • Pancreas tissue engineering
  • Vascular tissue engineering
  • TE for Modeling Human Physiology
  • Drug discovery

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